Sunday, February 8, 2009

ERGONOMI DAN REDESAIN TEMPAT KERJA

A BETTER PLACE TO WORK AND HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY
RELATED WITH:
*MATERIALS STORAGE AND HANDLING?

*WORK STATION DESIGN
*CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
*WORK-RELATED WELFARE FACILITIES

why not?...
think it..
talk it and..
do it right now!

productivity is an aims in all industries, but often difficult to get higher productivity with many reasons ofcourse. we must know... productivity is different with another one... product.
please try this lessons step by step and dont be confused!

any difficulties please contact me any ways...


BETTER ORGANIZED STORAGE

1. IF IN DOUBT- TAKE IT OUT
- Consider each tool, each piece of raw material, each component or spare part.
- Is it in use?
- Is it really needed?
- If not, take it away!!!

2. AVOID PLACING MATERIALS ON THE FLOOR
- The best way to stop bad habit is to prohibit placing anything on the floor and to monitor strictly the execution of the rule.

3.SAVE SPACE BY INTRODUCING MULTI-LEVEL RACKS

4.PROVIDE A “HOME” FOR EACH TOOL AND WORK ITEM



FEWER AND SHORTER TRANSPORT AND HANDLING OPERATIONS

1.THE MORE YOU USE IT – THE CLOSER IT SHOULD BE- The way to resolve this problem is to rank all tools and work items in order of frequency of use and to allocate their places accordingly

2.USE MOBILE STORAGE
- A god first is to design pallets or containers to move several items at the same time
- Pallets, containers or racks on wheels can be easily moved from one workstation to another or to the warehouse
- To save storage space, the racks should be standardized and it should be possible to stack them

3.MAKE YOUR EQUIPMENT EASY TO MOVE WHERE IT IS NEEDED

FEWER AND MORE EFFICIENT LIFTING OPERATIONS

1. DON’T LIFT LOADS HIGHER THAN NECESSARY: Use Mechanical Aid Assistances

- In selecting materials handling devices and methods of manual carrying, give preference to the ones with a minimum of elevation of the load

2.MOVE MATERIALS AT WORKING HEIGHT

- We can’t always avoid the need to lift heavy goods.

- One possibility is to install a suspended or floor-mounted transport system of appropriate height, where heavy loads are moved manually or by gravity between workstation

- Another solution is to employ mobile work-stands

3.MAKE LIFTING MORE EFFICIENT AND SAFER
- A heavy load suspended in the air is always a danger, especially in a small overcrowded workshop. Preference should be given to floor-based lifting devices which use the minimum necessary elevation


WORK STATION DESIGN
- A well designed workstation is important for productive work

- It the worker can do so quickly and easily, productivity will be higher and quality will be better

1.KEEP MATERIALS, TOOLS AND CONTROLS WITHIN EASY REACH

- Time and effort are saved by placing materials, tools and controls within easy reach of the worker

- Long reaches mean a loss of production time and extra effort

- The more you use it, the closer it should be

- If material are supplied in boxes or bins or on pallets or racks, these should be placed within easy reach and at an appropriate height

2.IMPROVE WORK POSTURE FOR GREATER EFFICIENCY

- When a difficult work position is required, work not only takes longer but also leads quickly to fatigue
- The measures help to avoid difficult work position:
- Place materials, tools and controls in optimum reach
- Use platform so that short workers can be at the proper work height
- Provide good chairs of correct seat height
- Provide enough leg space

3.IMPROVE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS TO MINIMIZE MISTAKES

- An effective way to avoid such mistakes is to ensure that each worker can see and identify clearly what he/she is working on.

- Keep things which are seen, touched or controlled (visual displays, materials, switches, etc) within easy sight of worker

- Make displays and controls easily distinguishable and

- Use good lighting


PRODUCTIVE MACHINE SAFETY
1. GIVE YOUR MACHINES A PRODUCTIVITY CHECK USING THE CHECKLIST

2. ELIMINATE THE HAZARD OR INSTALL GUARDS OR AS A LAST RESORT USE PPE ALWAYS IN THIS ORDER

3. PURCHASE SAFE MACHINES

4. USE FEEDING AND EJECTION DEVICES TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY AND REDUCE MACHINE HAZARDS

5. USE THE RIGHT TYPE OF GUARD

- Machines have different types of action and production requirement
- They also have different types of danger
- Its important to match guards both to the requirements of the machines and to the specific nature of the hazards involved


CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

1.REPLACE A DANGEROUS SUBSTANCE WITH A LESS ONE

2.USE LIDS, COVERS, MAINTENANCE AND ISOLATION OF PROCESSES TO CONTROL HAZARDS AND REDUCE LOSSES

3. SAVE ENERGY USED TO OVERHEAT CHEMICAL

4. CLEAN PROPERLY- DON’T SPREAD DUST

5. MAKE LOCAL VENTILATION COST-EFFECTIVE

6. USE FANS PROPERLY

7. USE PUSH AND PULL VENTILATION

8. AS A LAST RESORT- USE PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMEN [PPE]

9. DON’T EAT AND BRING HOME DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES

10.etc.


WORK-RELATED WELFARE FACILITIES

1.PROVIDE DRINGKING WATER
2.PROVIDE SANITARY FACILITIES
3.BE READY FOR EMERGENCY
4.HEALTH SERVICES
5.CANTEENS
6.PROVIDE TRANSPORT FACILITIES

7.PROVIDE RECREATION FACILITIES

8.CHILD-CARE FACILITIES, IF POSIBLE

9.FACTORY DAYS

10.etc.

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Friday, February 6, 2009

LIGHTING AT WORK [ APLIKASI PENERANGAN DI TEMPAT KERJA]

APPLICATIONS OF LIGHTING AT WORK
When people ask to us, CAN LIGHTING AFFECT HEALTH AND SAFETY?
The answer is YES, Ofcourse Lighting at work can affect health and safety.
try to check and identify the lighting problems in your workplace right now.
any comments and questions even critic contact me soon.

Lighting at work can affect health and safety by:

1. Making it difficult to see and recognize hazards in the workplace

2. Causing or contributing to eye strain, result from:
Performing very fine visual work for extended periods
Glare, reflections and shadows
Reading poorly printed or written text
Poor lighting
Looking for too long at the same thing
Excessive focusing and re-focusing of the eyes
Looking at dark things and then bright things frequently

3. Adopting stressful postures at work to see properly

4. Causing a range of other problems that can directly or indirectly affect health and safety:
Flickering Lights
Adapting from bright to dim lighting and dim to light
Ultraviolet light and infra red light, under certain conditions may cause significant damage to the eyes and skin
Other health effects such as: computer screens lead to eyestrain, etc.


WHEN PEOPLE ASK, HOW SHOULD LIGHTING AT WORK BE APPROACHED ?
THE answer are:

The General Approach Consist of Three Main Steps:
1. Design the workplace to avoid lighting problems
2. Identify and assess lighting problems and difficulties in the workplace
3. Develop, implement and evaluate solutions to lighting problems

STEP 1. DESIGN

- Lighting and the lighting needs of employees should always be considered during the design of buildings, work areas, work stations, machinery, tools and equipment

- Its quite possible to design specific lighting installations to achieve required illumination levels to control glare and shadows, and to satisfy health and safety requirements

STEP 2. IDENTIFYING AND ASSESSING LIGHTING PROBLEMS

- Workplace consultation
- Using accident reports and investigations
- Using consultant
- Assessing lighting levels, glare, reflections and shadows
- Considering other factors such as posture, visual rest, color, time and people with visual defects


Then, how we assess Lighting Levels?

1. Lighting levels depends on The Amount and The Quality of Lighting
- The quality of the lighting depends on:
- The number and types of lights in use
- The types of light fittings in use
- The position of the lights
- How colors appear under them and
- How well the lighting system is maintained

2. The amount of light in an area can be measured by Lux-meter

Assessing Glare
- Glare occurs when one part or area of what we are looking at is much brighter that everything else that we can see
- When glare prevents us from seeing things properly it is called Disability Glare
- Glare may just causes annoyance, discomfort, irritation or distraction the situations is called DISCOMFORT GLARE
- Sources of glare at work are: windows and skylights, the sun, lights, and very bright, shiny or glossy surfaces that reflect light sources

Assessing Reflections

- Sometimes the thing that is being looked at can’t be seen properly because of reflections

- When they interfere with visibility they are called VEILING REFLECTIONS


Assessing Shadows

- Shadows in the workplace can be a problem by creating too much contrast in the work area and may contribute to glare problems

- They can reduce the visibility of work and a poor posture to see the work at hand may be adopted


STEP 3. DEVELOPING, IMPLEMENTING AND EVALUATING SOLUTIONS TO LIGHTING PROBLEMS

Possible control measures or solutions to lighting problem are:
1. Modify The Existing Lighting System:
Lowering or raising lights
Changing the orientation or position of lights
Increasing or decreasing the number of lights
Changing the type of light
Changing the fittings or housing
Changing the coloring of the lights used

2. Modify The Task
Bring it closer to the eye so the detail can be seen
Providing a magnifier or similar aid
Changing the position of the work to avoid shadows, reflections, sources of glare or visual distractions
Modifying the task so it can be seen better, e.g. increasing the size of lettering and numbers on dials

3. Change The Workplace Surface

4. Maintain and Clean Lights and Lighting fittings

EMERGENCY LIGHTING

- A flashing light alarm may convey important information such as the type of hazards present

- Illuminated EXIT lights help in the evacuation of people from dangerous situations

- Good light alarms can tell us what’s wrong and what to do in emergencies

- Independent emergency lighting systems exits to provide minimum safe lighting levels when the normal lighting system fails

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CHECKLIST KEBISINGAN

NOISE RISK IDENTIFICATION CHECKLIST
this checklist is really simple tobe used
when we go to the noisy workplace, but we don't have sound level meter, don't be confused, take it easy and use this checklist to identify any noise in your work place.
do it now and get the excelent result!
any diffuculty please contact me.


NOISE RISK IDENTIFICATION CHECKLIST
Description of Work Location:
_________________________________
_________________________________
Task Work Station:
_________________________________
_________________________________
Assessed by:_____________________
Date of Assessment:_______________
SHE Representative:_______________

No Questions (tick YES or NO)

1 Is there difficulty in communication between two employees at 1 meter distance? [Difficulty means that the speaker must raise his/her voice or that listener may not understand what is said]
2 Do employees in the area notice a reduction in hearing over the course of the day? [This reduction might not be noticed until after work]
3 Do employees experience of ringing in the ears?
4 Are any long term employees hard of hearing?
5 Are hearing protection device provided?

6 Are signs indicating that hearing protection device should be worn, posted at the entrance or in the work area?
7 Does the noise in any part of the workplace sound as loud or louder than 85 dbA?
8 Does the company measure the noise regularly and keep the past noise recorded in the good file?
9 Have there been any industrial deafness claims?
10 Does any equipment and machine have noise information including labels that indicate noise levels equal or greater that TLV?
11 Are there any existing noise protection implemented in the workplace, except PPE?
12 Do the results of audiometry indicate that any past or present employees have hearing loss?

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KUESIONER PENGUJIAN KELELAHAN UMUM

PENGUJIAN KELELAHAN UMUM
Kuesioner ini saya entrikan ke dalam blog ini untuk memenuhi permintaan dari rekan-rekan saya yang akan mengadakan penelitian atau membuat tugas akhir. smoga bermanfaat.
kuesioner ini ditujukan untuk menilai kelelahan secara umum yang mencakup tiga kelompok kelelahan yang dialami pekerja yaitu pelemahan kegiatan, pelemahan motivasi dan pelemahan secara fisik. kuesioner ini saya adopt dari IFRC Japan (INDUSTRIAL fATIGUE reaserch Communittee)yang telah banyak saya gunakan untuk meneliti efek pekerjaan fisik terhadap munculnya kelelahan.
kuesioner ini juga bersifat subjektif (Subjective feelings of fatigue) artinya sangat tergantung dari responden yang sedang diteliti.
Selanjutnya kita dapat mengembangkan sendiri dalam penilaian dan skoring, anda dapat menggunakan skala likert ataupun jawaban 'YA' dan 'TIDAK' yang selanjutnya dianalisis dengan spss untuk menguji kemaknaan perbedaan.
kelemahan kuesioner ini, tidak dapat menentukan klasifikasi tingkat kelelahan yang dialami pekerja, untuk itu pengujian harus dilakukan selama dua kali yaitu PRE DAN POST TEST.


KUESIONER KELELAHAN UMUM

I. IDENTITAS PERSEORANGAN
(Tulislah identitas saudara atau coret yang tidak perlu)

1. Nama :…………………………………..
2. Umur/tgl.lahir :……… /…………………………
3. Jenis kelamin : Pria / Wanita*
4. Status : Kawin / belum kawin*
5. Jenis pekerjaan :…………………………………..
6. Pengalaman kerja : …………tahun,…………..bulan.
WAKTU PENGUKURAN: SEBELUM KERJA / SETELAH KERJA

II. KUESIONER 30 ITEMS KELELAHAN UMUM

NO DAFTAR PERTANYAAN

1 Apakah saudara merasa berat di bagian kepala?
2 Apakah saudara merasa lelah pada seluruh badan?
3 Apakah kaki saudara terasa berat?
4 Apakah saudara menguap?
5 Apakah pikiran saudara terasa kacau?
6 Apakah saudara merasa mengantuk?
7 Apakah saudara merasakan ada beban pada mata?
8 Apakah saudara merasa kaku atau canggung dalam bergerak?
9 Apakah saudara merasa sempoyongan ketika berdiri?
10 Apakah ada perasaan ingin berbaring?
11 Apakah saudara merasa susuh berfikir?
12 Apakah saudara merasa malas untuk bicara?
13 Apakah perasaan saudara menjadi gugup?
14 Apakah saudara tidak bisa berkonsentrasi?
15 Apakah saudara tidak bisa memusatkan perhatian terhadap sesuatu?
16 Apakah saudara punya kecenderungan untuk lupa?
17 Apakah saudara merasa kurang percaya diri?
18 Apakah saudara merasa cemas terhadap sesuatu?
19 Apakah saudara merasa tidak dapat mengontrol sikap?
20 Apakah saudara merasa tidak dapat tekun dalam pekerjaan?
21 Apakah saudara merasa sakit kepala?
22 Apakah saudara merasa kaku di bagian bahu?
23 Apakah saudara merasakan nyeri di punggung?
24 Apakah nafas saudara merasa tertekan / sesak?
25 Apakah saudara merasa haus?
26 Apakah suara saudara terasa serak?
27 Apakah saudara merasa pening?
28 Apakah kelopak mata saudara terasa kejang?
29 Apakah anggota badan saudara merasa gemetar/tremor?
30 Apakah saudara merasa kurang sehat?
KETERANGAN SKOR:
1: TIDAK LELAH
2: AGAK LELAH
3: LELAH
4: LELAHSEKALI

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KUESIONER NORDIC BODY MAP

PENGUJIAN GANGGUAN MSD’S [MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDER] DENGAN 'NORDIC BODY MAP' [NBM]
Kuesioner Nordic Body Map ini saya entrikan ke dalam blog ini karena banyaknya permintaan dari para mahasiswa khususnya DIII Hiperkes dan Keselamatan kerja, DIV Kesehatan kerja, Teknik Industri, Poltekes, dsb. untuk itu smoga bermanfaat.

dalam penggunaan kuesioner ini harus hati-hati karena sangat subjektif, artinya sangat dipengaruhi oleh responden.
kuesioner NBM ini dalam penilaian dapat menggunakan "4 skala likert" dengan skala 1 s/d 4, atau dapat menggunakan 'YA' dan 'TIDAK'.
apabila menggunakan skala likert yang terpenting adalah penjelasan definisi operasional dari setiap skala. dan saya biasa menggunakan kuesioner ini untuk mengukur gangguan MSD's pada dua periode yaitu PRE TEST (sebelum kerja) dan POST TEST (setelah bekerja). dari total kedua skor PRE dan POST di uji dengan statistik spss untuk mengetahui kemaknaan perbedaan.

I. IDENTITAS PERSEORANGAN
(Tulislah identitas saudara atau coret yang tidak perlu)

1. Nama :…………………………………..
2. Umur/tgl.lahir :……… /…………………………
3. Jenis kelamin : Pria / Wanita*
4. Status : Kawin / belum kawin*
5. Jenis pekerjaan :…………………………………..
6. Pengalaman kerja : …………tahun,…………..bulan.

II. KUESIONER NORDIC BODY MAP [PENGUKURAN: SEBELUM KERJA / SETELAH KERJA]
NO JENIS KELUHAN

0 Sakit/kaku di leher bagian atas
1 Sakit/kaku di leher bagian bawah
2 Sakit di bahu kiri
3 Sakit di bahu kanan
4 Sakit pada lengan atas kiri
5 Sakit di punggung
6 Sakit pada lengan atas kanan
7 Sakit pada pinggang
8 Sakit pada bokong
9 Sakit pada pantat
10 Sakit pada siku kiri
11 Sakit pada siku kanan
12 Sakit pada lengan bawah kiri
13 Sakit pada lengan bawah kanan
14 Sakit pada pergelangan tangan kiri
15 Sakit pada pergelangan tangan kanan
16 Sakit pada jari-jari tangan kiri
17 Sakit pada jari-jari tangan kanan
18 Sakit pada paha kiri
19 Sakit pada paha kanan
20 Sakit pada lutut kiri
21 Sakit pada lutut kanan
22 Sakit pada betis kiri
23 Sakit pada betis kanan
24 Sakit pada pergelangan kaki kiri
25 Sakit pada pergelangan kaki kanan
26 Sakit pada jari kaki kiri
27 Sakit pada jari kaki kanan
JUMLAH SKOR:
KETERANGAN SKOR:
1: TIDAK SAKIT
2: AGAK SAKIT
3: SAKIT
4: SAKIT SEKALI


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